Teaching in Primary or Secondary School
1.   Determine which level you’d like to Teach.
Primary Schools cover the 1st through 8th grades (ages 6-14). Secondary schools teach students in the 9th and 10th grades (ages 14-16), and senior secondary schools teach students in the 11th and 12th grades (ages 16-18).
You should opt for the age group that you find most appealing. However, keep in mind that the higher the age level, the more stringent the qualifications since you’ll be teaching more advanced and specialized courses.
2.   Decide which Subject you’d like to Teach.
Primary school teachers do not need to specialize in any Subject. If you would prefer to instruct in a specific field, you’ll need a Bachelor’s Degree in a relevant subject.
Primary school subjects include Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Social Science, Science, and English.
Secondary school subjects include Hindi, English, foreign languages, Math, Science and Technology, History, Geography, Civics, Art, Physical Education, and Health. They also offer elective vocational Training and Music.
3.   Get an Appropriate Teaching Degree.
There are three levels of teaching degrees: a Diploma, Bachelor’s, and Master’s in Education. If you would like teach Primary School, you will need a minimum of a Diploma (D.El.Ed.). If you would like to teach Secondary School, you’ll need a minimum of a Bachelor’s (B.Ed.). A Master’s (M.Ed.) is usually only required for specialized subjects or promotions.
The D.El.Ed. and B.Ed. programs are generally two years. M.Ed. programs are usually one year.
Keep in mind that each degree program has different qualifications. To enter a D.El.Ed. you’ll need to have passed the 12th standard (graduated from senior secondary school) with the minimum qualification. You’re required to have a Bachelor’s of Arts or Sciences (B.A. or B.S.) to enroll in a B.Ed. course. Having a B.Ed. is a prerequisite for getting an M.Ed.
4.   Decide between Private and Public Education.
Becoming a teacher at a private school is generally easier because there are many openings and fewer necessary qualifications. Government-run schools are much more closely regulated and require specific eligibility testing and teacher education. However, public schools generally come with better pay and benefits and have more opportunities for career advancement.
The types of students are also generally different between public and private schools. Since students must pay to go to private schools, they generally come from more educated households with higher incomes and are therefore better prepared for scholastic achievement.
5.   Pass a Qualifying Exam.
Teacher recruitment in India at the primary and secondary levels is tied to state and national eligibility testing. You must pass the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) to qualify to teach in a government-owned school and some private institutions.
The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) offers preparatory curriculums for the exam and determines the minimum eligibility requirements for each year.
Teaching Higher Education
1.   Get the Relevant Degree(s).
India’s University Grants Commission sets regulations for higher education, including essential qualifications for university professors. Incoming assistant professors will need at least a Master’s Degree or equivalent in a relevant subject from an accredited Indian or foreign university. Your application will be stronger if you have a Doctoral Degree.
Keep in mind that you will not be able to advance through promotion from an assistant to an associate professor without getting a PhD.
2.   Ensure you have a Good Academic Record.
Besides having a degree, you will need to submit transcripts that prove your marks or grades are above average. Indian universities will judge your record according to the evaluation standards set by your degree-granting university.
3.   Secure Academic Publications.
While assistant professor positions usually do not require a minimum number of publications, your application will be stronger if you have a record of original research in your field. Submit articles to peer-reviewed journals and book proposals to academic publishers in order to show that your work has been vetted by fellow scholars.
In order to secure promotions, you will need to hit a minimum number of qualifying academic publications (5 for associates, 10 for full professors), so you might as well start early!
4.   Take the necessary Test.
If you only have a Master’s Degree, you will need to pass a qualifying exam in order to teach at an Indian university. You can either take the University Grants Commission’s National Eligibility Test (NET) or one of the UGC’s approved equivalent exams, such as the SLET/SET (the State Eligibility Test for the appropriate region in which the university is located).
If you have a qualifying PhD, you are exempt from having to take an eligibility test.
5. Search for faculty Positions.
You can look for job openings through specific university websites or search for comprehensive listings at dedicated academic job sites, like IndianFaculty.com. Each opening will include information about the associated duties, necessary requirements, and application process for the job. Be sure that a position aligns with your needs and qualifications before applying.
List of Entrance Exams for Teaching Jobs
Teacher Eligibility Test - TET Entrance Exam.
CTET - Central Teacher Eligibility Test.
NET – National Eligibility Test.
SLET or SET – State Level Eligibility Test or State Eligibility Test.
PRT - Primary Teacher.
TGT - Trained Graduate Teacher.
PGT - Post Graduate Teacher
B. Ed. - Bachelor of Education
D.El.Ed. - Diploma in Elementary Education.